Actinopterygii (Ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes (Cods) > Gadidae (Cods and haddocks)
Max length: 200 cm
Common length: 100.0 cm
Max published weight: 96.0 kg
Max reported age: 25 years
Length at first maturity: Lm 41.1, range 31 – 74 cm
Benthopelagic; oceanodromous; marine; brackish; depth range 0 – 600 m, usually 150 – 200 m
Temperate; ? – 15°C; 80°N – 35°N, 95°W – 61°E
Cod is the common name for genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae, and is also used in the common name for various other fishes. Cod is a popular food with a mild flavor, low fat content and a dense, flaky white flesh. Cod livers are processed to make cod liver oil, an important source of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids (EPA andDHA). The northeast Arctic cod, which is traditionally fished when approaching the coast during spawning, are sometimes called skrei. Young Atlantic cod or haddock prepared in strips for cooking is called scrod.
The Atlantic cod, which can change color at certain water depths, has two distinct color phases: gray-green and reddish brown. Its average mass is 5–12 kilograms (11–26 lb), but specimens weighing up to 100 kilograms (220 lb) have been recorded. Cod feed on molluscs, crabs, starfish, worms, squid, and small fish. Some migrate to warm water in winter to spawn. A large female lays up to five million eggs in midocean, a very small number of which survive. Pacific or saltwater cod are also found around the coast of British Columbia, Canada and the northwestern US coastal areas. These fish are three times the size of their eastern counterparts and are darker in color.
Cod meat is moist and flaky when cooked and is white in color. In the United Kingdom, Atlantic cod is one of the most common ingredients in fish and chips, along with haddock and plaice. It is also frequently consumed in Portugal andSpain.
Cod have three rounded dorsal and two anal fins. The pelvic fins are small, with the first ray extended, and are set under the gill cover (i.e. the throat region), in front of the pectoral fins. The upper jaw extends over the lower jaw, which has a well-developed chin barbel. The eyes are medium sized, approximately the same as the length of the chin barbel. Cod have a distinct white lateral line running from the gill slit above the pectoral fin, to the base of the caudal or tail fin. The back tends to be a greenish to sandy brown, and shows extensive mottling, especially towards the lighter sides and white belly. Dark brown colouration of the back and sides is not uncommon, especially for individuals that have resided in rocky inshore regions.
USDA data : Pacific cod Atlantic cod Cod's soft liver can be tinned (canned) and eaten. It is an important source of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA).
Almost all coral cod, reef cod or rock cod are also in order Perciformes. Most are better known as groupers, and belong to the family Serranidae. Others belong to the Nototheniidiae. Two exceptions are the Australasian red rock cod, which belongs to a different order (see below), and the fish known simply as the rock cod and as soft cod in New Zealand, Lotella rhacina, which as noted above actually is related to the true cod (it is a morid cod).
Northwest to Northeast Atlantic: Cape Hatteras to Ungava Bay along the North American coast; east and west coast of Greenland; around Iceland; coasts of Europe from the Bay of Biscay to the Barents Sea, including the region around Bear Island.